Warning: Excessive Gore

As a teen in the 1960s, Mary Elizabeth Aitcheson loved music. During her sophomore year in high school, she got her first set of drums, and taught herself to play while listening to the stereo. She frequently played along with Sandy Nelson’s ‘Let There Be Drums’ album. In 1964, after playing for about a year, she helped form an all-girl rock band, The Wildcats. The ‘Cats played mostly high school dances and local fairs. The Wildcats ended after graduation, but later in life Mary Elizabeth would have the chance to sit in with such legends as Willie Nelson and The Gareteful Dead. But back in the 60’s, few would have guessed that this young Ringo Starr fanatic would rise to national prominence as one of rock music’s greatest villains: Tipper Gore.

We’re all too familiar with the story of the PMRC and their campaign to clean up rock music. Or are we? Many of us watched this story unfold on MTv, where the issue was over-simplified and delivered to us by Kurt Loder in short snippets via MTv News. MTv framed the story as a classic good guys vs bad guys saga, where the evil oppressor’s goal was the censorship of rock music, and the artists we watched on MTv every day were the innocent victims. Young people everywhere ate this version up, oblivious to the real elements at work here: politics, power, money, backroom deals and big business.

Tipper_GoreThe PMRC (Parent’s Music Resource Center) was formed in 1985 after Auntie Tip heard the lyrics to Prince’s ‘Darling Nikki’, a song her 11 year old niece was listening to, and was horrified. Soon after, Gore and three other ‘Washington Wives’ formed the PMRC, allegedly to “increase parental control over the access of children to music deemed to be violent, have drug use or be sexual.” The PMRC began pressuring the RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) to “exercise voluntary self-restraint perhaps by developing guidelines and/or a rating system, such as that of the movie industry.”

The Parent Teacher Association got involved as well, calling for the music industry to “put a label on record, tape, and cassettes rating the material contained within and require that such a rating would read profanity, sex, violence, or vulgarity.” The PTA further stated that “all we want to do is take the element of surprise out of buying an album.” Both groups invited RIAA labels to discuss the issue; of the 62 record companies invited, none of them agreed to participate.

At the same time, the RIAA was participating in congressional hearings regarding the ‘Home Recording Act’, or HR 2911, which included a tax on blank tapes to prevent the home taping of music and video, an issue that the RIAA believed was costing the industry millions of dollars annually. This tax would have netted the RIAA labels an estimated $250,000.00 annually… Four husbands of the ‘Washington Wives’ sat on the committee to decide the Home Recording Act… So any resistance to the PMRC from the RIAA was doomed at the start, because behind the scenes, the RIAA was in bed with the Washington Wives.


When the Reverend Jimmy Swaggert caught wind of what was happening, he quickly jumped on the bandwagon and began pressuring retailers not to carry any rock music, and several retailers across the country started pulling rock music and rock magazines from their shelves. The RIAA, still in talks with the Washington husbands about the home taping bill, now faced losing even more millions in retail sales. Suddenly the RIAA agreed to play ball. An agreement was reached on labeling RIAA records.

The Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation held a record-labeling hearning before Congress on September 9, 1985, a short time after the labeling agreement was reached between the RIAA and the PMRC. In other words, the hearings were a complete farce. But it made for great MTv, where the ‘fight against censorship’ angle was played up to the hilt. The discussions, which were broadcast on live TV on CSPAN, lasted for several days, and included testimonies by John Denver, Al Gore, Frank Zappa, Dee Snider and several other senators and musicians, although, since an agreement to label albums had already been made, really only served to bring the PMRC and their crusade to national attention.


Frank Zappa boldly asserted during his testimony that the RIAA had already made a deal with Congress to agree to label music if HR 2911 was passed, noting not only the Tipper/Al Gore connection, but also out that Senator Strom Thurman sat on the HR committee as well, while his wife Nancy was a PMRC affiliate. Zappa also got into it with Florida Senator Paula Hawkins, who famously displayed Def Leppard’s ‘Pyromania’ cover and shrieked “The message is clear! Burn, baby, burn!” Hawkins also played Van Halen’s ‘Hot For Teacher’ video for Congress. Schwinnnggg! Dee Snider is to be commended for his passionate defense of rock music, and for having the balls to tell a US Senator to his face that his wife has a dirty mind, right there on the senate floor. Whatever you think of their music, both men’s testimonies were nothing short of heroic.

On November 1st the RIAA unveiled their warning label to the public, along with the following statement:

We believe that not all music is right for all ages and out Parental Advisory Label was created for just that reason. Parents can use the label to identify music that may not be appropriate for their children and make the choice about when — and whether — their children should be able to have that recording.

Under the agreement with the PMRC, the 22 participating RIAA record companies would ‘voluntarily’ apply the warning label to any release containing references to “explicit sex, violence, or substance abuse.” The warning label was announced to the public just two days after HR 2911 had its own hearing… presided over by that bill’s sponsor: Tipper’s husband, Al Gore.

As it turns out, the RIAA got screwed; the HR Act was not passed. But as there was nothing legally binding in the agreement with the PMRC to label their releases, compliance with the agreement on the part of the RIAA was …sketchy. The labels had a negative effect on retail sales, not due to parents or kids deciding not to buy ‘inappropriate’ music, but rather through failure of retail and radio to sell or support music that carried the warning. So slowly but steadily, the RIAA labels in the agreement decreased the use of the label. From January 1986 to August 1989, the PMRC officially considered 121 records released by RIAA labels to be offensive; only 49 displayed the warning label. So: absolutely nothing of any substance had been achieved by either side.

metallica_master_of_puppets_PMRC_stickerSome labels and artists treated the label as a joke. Promo copies of Metallica’s 1986 album ‘Master of Puppets’ contained a sticker reading: “The only track you probably won’t want to play is ‘Damage, Inc.’ due to the multiple uses of the infamous ‘F’ word. Otherwise, there aren’t any ‘shits’, ‘fucks’, ‘pisses’, ‘cunts’, ‘motherfuckers’, or ‘cocksuckers’ anywhere on this record.” Ice-T’s album “Freedom of Speech” had a warning sticker that read: “X-Rated; Parents Strongly Cautioned; Some Material May Not Be X-tra Hype And Inappropriate For Squares And Suckers.”

The PMRC was not amused. They issued a report along with the National PTA in 1989 that stated that only half of all ‘explicit’ music carried the label, and that the RIAA member labels had “repeatedly violated the spirit of the agreement by releasing albums such as the Beastie Boys, Metallica, and Motley Crue without attempting to warn consumers about the content.” Once again the RIAA, still working with Al Gore to pass a version of HR 2911, agreed in 1990 to a new warning label to be more universally adopted and applied, and after quibbling about the definition of ‘explicit’, the new label debuted in 1991. A new version of HR 2911 called the Audio Home Recording Act was passed by Congress in 1992. How about that.

Once the RIAA was successfully extorted into agreeing to a universal warning label, the real work of the PMRC was done. The group changed its name in 1998 to the Partners with the Music Resource Center, as if everybody was now bestest buddies. In 1998, the group announced that due to limited funding and staff, it could no longer afford to publish its newsletter. Toward the end of its existence, the PMRC attempted to change its public profile, describing itself as a “resource center to educate and promote public awareness of the positive long-term effects of music on health, analytical and creative thinking and self-esteem.” Uh huh…

Thirty years after the Senate hearings, it’s easy to see what was really going on here. ‘Oh, you want us to pass a new tax that will tighten copyright law and help maximize your profits? Well, our wives don’t like your lyrics and album covers. Perhaps we can make a deal.’ This was never about censorship. This was Al Gore appeasing his wife; giving her and her pet project a brief moment in the political spotlight, and using HR 2911 as a lever to get wifey what she wanted. Or as Frank Zappa said before the Senate hearing, “A couple of blowjobs here and there and Bingo! You get a hearing.”

Did the PMRC and their warning label have any long-lasting effects on the music business or on rock music itself? No. As for the ‘music’ side, rock/rap lyrics would continually reach new heights of depravity and offensiveness that would make Prince’s ‘Darling Nikki’ sound like Peter, Paul, and Mary. On the ‘business’ end, make no mistake: the music business destroyed itself, by worrying more about consumers making analog copies of copyrighted material, and not enough about limiting the technology to digitize that material. Home taping didn’t kill music; the failure of Al Gore’s HR 2911 to forecast future technologies is what killed the music biz.


Epic Fail

His track record is unassailable: He’s earned 23 Gold & Platinum albums. As A&R for Epic records in the 70’s, he signed Cheap Trick, Molly Hatchet, Ted Nugent, Boston, and REO Speedwagon. As a producer for Epic Records from 1970-1982, he produced career-making records by all of the iconic rockers mentioned above. Chances are, if you’re reading this blog, you own an album with his name on it. “Heaven Tonight”, anyone? “Cat Scratch Fever”? “Boston”? Maybe some of his 80’s work… Twisted Sister’s “Stay Hungry”? Dokken’s “Tooth and Nail”? Motley Crue’s “Theatre of Pain”?

Tom Werman practically produced the soundtrack to my teens.

Werman brought Kiss, Lynyrd Skynyrd and Rush to CBS, and was turned down in all three cases. Tell me, did this guy not OWN hard rock in the mid 70’s?

Most of the bands Werman worked with had their biggest albums with him; their commercial breakthroughs. Most bands he worked with stayed with him for a number of albums before changing producers. Motley Crue and Cheap Trick each did three records with Werman; Molly Hatchet 5, Nugent 6. And… most bands began their commercial decline after moving on to work with other producers.

Tom Werman’s job was, as he described it, to ‘get bands on the radio’. ‘Cat Scratch Fever’. ‘Surrender’. ‘Flirtin’ with Disaster’… I’ll bet you first heard these songs on the radio. And they are still played on the radio today, 35 years later. Is there any question as to how well this guy did his job?


A few years back it somehow became fashionable to dump on Tom Werman. Musicians he had worked with 2 or 3 decades previous were suddenly complaining that the records they made with him were too safe, too commercial, ‘not an accurate representation of our sound’. Why these established rock stars feel the need to look back on their most successful period and complain about the records that established their careers, ‘blaming’ Werman for their biggest hits, is just plain bizarre.

The most infamous instance was probably the war of words between Werman and Nikki Sixx (feel so silly typing that name). Sixx (tee hee) wrote a book about what a super-cool guy he is and how heroin is bad but it’s also very rock ‘n roll, so hey, that’s what decadent rock stars do, dude. In this book, in between blaming his girlfriend for every drug relapse and blaming every drug relapse on his girlfriend, ‘ol Nikk talks trash about Werman, accusing him of spending more time on the phone than producing the Crue’s record. Super-hero Nikki than had to assume control and see the album through. Riiiiight. Werman felt the need to defend himself, and wrote an op/ed piece for the New York Times refuting Sixx’s story and pointing out the inherent absurdities in the version of events as described by Nikki. This, in turn, prompted Nikki to post a response on blabbermouth.com, in which he threatened to ‘out’ Werman to his wife for the partying he allegedly did during the recording of the album. What a douche. Werman responded again. The whole sad saga is encapsulated here:


Dee Snider played the same game while promoting Twisted Sister’s re-recording of their triple-platinum “Stay Hungry”, titled “Still Hungry”. Besides his production credit, Werman is also credited as ‘co-arranger’ on “Stay Hungry”, and it’s widely known that he reworked some of the songs to make them more commercial. Based on the results, I’d say he was successful. But not Dee. Snider claims that Werman had nothing to do with the success of “Stay Hungry”, that his work on the record came close to ‘ruining’ it, and that he didn’t want ‘We’re Not Gonna Take It’ and I Wanna Rock’ to be on the record… Really, Dee? This is the guy who gets hard rock bands on the radio. The guy who’s number one priority is making sure there’s a single on the record. He didn’t think those 2 tunes were viable? Sounds like somebody’s trying to spark some controversy to sell their new album (which ultimately sold about 30,00 units, just a tad short of triple platinum). Snider goes on to claim that working with Werman was the reason that Twisted Sister’s next album (produced by Dieter Dierks) completely sucked, as poor Dee was too busy fighting against bad ol’ Tom Werman’s commercial considerations while recording “Stay Hungry” to write decent songs for the follow-up record. Really. Dee Snider’s take on Werman and “Stay Hungry” can be found here:


Cheap Trick, who Werman continues to speak very highly of, have stated publicly that they were displeased with the sound of their Werman-produced records– but only started talking about it after about 25 years. Interesting that they did their 3rd and 4th lps with Werman, as well… Like Twisted Sister, they too, re-recorded one of their ‘Werman Era’ albums, “In Color”, with infamous indie producer Steve Albini; however, they have never released the record. I’ve heard it; it’s a lot more live-sounding than Werman’s recording, a lot more raw, much like CT’s first album, and maybe a lot closer to what the band were hoping for sonically back in 1977. But is it a better record than Werman’s? No. If the Albini version of “In Color” were released in ’77 as Cheap Trick’s second album, things would have been very different for this band. The Albini “In Color” leaked onto the internet years ago and is fairly easy to obtain. Just not here.

What we have here is the classic battle of art vs. commerce, with musicians on the ‘art’ side and record producers representing ‘commerce’. While Werman undoubtedly steered these bands in a more commercial direction than they were comfortable with, no one can argue that he didn’t do his job (‘getting bands on the radio’) exceedingly well. And perhaps these musicians need to take a moment, as they look back on their 30-year careers, and ask themselves if they’d even have 30-year careers to look back on if they hadn’t had the good fortune to work with Tom Werman… Would they really trade the gold and platinum albums and the hit singles that were the foundation of their success, assured their longevity and cemented their iconic status for generations to come, for complete creative control over their records, commercial success be damned?      

Tom Werman’s track record speaks for itself. However, if you want to read Werman’s story as told by Werman, he writes a regular column at popdose.com where he relates his experiences recording some of the greatest records by the greatest rock bands of all time, before they went all douche-y. I highly recommend that you read his stuff here:


Werman now owns and runs a bed & breakfast out in Lenox, MA, called Stonover Farm. He once posted his personal email on popdose, but has since changed it to an unpublished address (he can, however, be contacted through the Stover Farm site). If you email him, he will likely answer. I highly recommend that you do so. Thank him for all the great music. I did.